International mechanisms for the protection of the right to life in armed conflicts
The article is devoted to the actual topic of international mechanisms for the protection of the right to life in international and non-international armed conflicts.
The increase in the number of armed conflicts in the world and, with them, violations of the right to life of the people, necessitates a generalization of the normative theory and practice of international bodies that promote and protect the fundamental right to life. That is why the article reveals, compares and generalizes the normative, theoretical and practical tools within the international mechanisms of protecting the right to life in conditions of military confrontation.
The regulatory framework of the article is based on the IHL, in particular: the Geneva Conventions (1949) and the two Additional Protocols thereto, the Hague Conventions (1907), customary norms, etc., as well as international human rights instruments, in particular: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) and the two Optional Protocols thereto, and regional acts: the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950), the American Convention on Human Rights (1969), the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981), the Arab Charter on Human Rights (2008), etc.
The most problematic issues in the article that arise during armed conflicts and which relate to the lawful use of force against warriors, the lawfulness of the deaths of civilians during an attack on military purposes (collateral damage), precautionary measures, which must be taken by States using lethal force, the obligation of States to investigate every death case, etc. will be considered in the light of the activities of the UN Human Rights Committee, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and European Court of Human Rights, whose practice in this area is represented the most versatile, widely and thoroughly.
Full Text:PDF (Українська)
Trester Y. (2013). International mechanisms of protection children`s rights. LLС "DKS-center". Retrieved from http://www.dy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=632
Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons. (1966). Para. 25. Retrieved from http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/95/7495.pdf; Legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the ocupied palestinian territory. (2004). Para. 106. Retrieved from http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/131/1671.pdf
United Nations GA Resolution «Human Rights in Armed Conflicts» №2444 (XXIII). (1968); Resolution of United Nations Security Council S/ Res/1952. (2005).
Compilation of general comments and general recommendations adopted by human rights treaty bodies. HRJ/GEN/1/Rev. 7. Retrieved from http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=FhOD6sgqgzAhFXD9F%2feKaEJI2%2fxgoMstRAco6nVCah%2bsuEZWG0anjLBrhZ08UuAa%2fRfc9fMnCMfx6qtzevJAhILJJbeQkTzWFgC86MNAzQ3DTzIFwny01lhhS0fgBKpb, p.p. 280 - 287.
David E. Principles de droit des conflits armés. (2011). ICRC. Retrieved from https://www.icrc.org/rus/resources/documents/publication/eric-david-principles.htm
Usmanov I. (2017). International legal regulation of the restrictionof the right to life in armed conflicts. „National Law Journal: Teory And Practice”, L.L.C.. Retrieved from http://www.jurnaluljuridic.in.ua/archive/2017/4/2017-4.pdf
Rusinova V. Human rights in armed conflict: the ratio of the norms of international humanitarian law and international human rights law. PhD dissertation (International Law), Moscow. 2015.
HRCmt, Concluding Observations, Israel. (21 August 2003). Human Rights Committee. Retrieved from https://www.adalah.org/uploads/oldfiles/upfiles/ConcludingObservations/HRC-Concluding%20Observations%20(2003).pdf
HRCmt, Concluding Observations, Israel, CCPR/C/ISR/CO/3. (3 September 2010). Retrieved from https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:ik2KS7WyQxQJ:www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/CCPR.C.ISR.CO.3.doc+&cd=1&hl=ru&ct=clnk&gl=ua
Doswald-Beck L. Human Rights in Times of Conflict and Terrorism. (2011). Oxford Scholarly Authorities on International Law. Retrieved from http://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law/9780199578931.001.0001/law-9780199578931-chapter-7#law-9780199578931-note-981
HRCte, General Comment 31, ‘Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant’. (26 May 2004).
HRCom Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, UN Doc E/CN.4/2006/53. (8 March 2006).
Milanovic M. Extraterritorial Derogations from Human Rights Treaties in Armed Conflict. (2016). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-frontiers-of-human-rights-9780198769279
Louise Doswald-Beck «The right to life in armed conflict: does international humanitarian law provide all the answers?». (2006). Retrieved from https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/irrc_864_doswald-beck.pdf
ECHR, Isyaeva v. Russia, para. 191; ECHR, Esmukhambetov and Others v. Russia, paras. 149–150; para. 4, 5 art. 51 AP I to Geneva Conventions.
ECHR, Isayeva, Yusupova and Bazayeva v. Russia, paras. 187–188.
ECHR, Isayeva v. Russia, para. 187; п. 2 (с) art. 57 AP I to Geneva Conventions.
Para. 2 (а) (iii), 2 (b) art. 57, para. 7, 8 art. 51 AP I to Geneva Conventions.
ECHR, Ergi v. Turkey, 40/1993/435/514, Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights, 28 July 1998,
ECHR, Makaratzis v. Greece, paras. 57–59; Nachova and Others v. Bulgaria, para. 96. 884 Makaratzis v. Greece, para. 58. 885 Nachova and Others v. Bulgaria, para. 97.
Melzer N. (2008). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Targeted Killing in International Law. Retrieved from http://www.ejil.org/pdfs/20/2/1808.pdf
ECtHR cases: Timurtas v Turkey Judgment, 25 May 1998, §§ 87–90; Tas v Turkey Judgment, 14 November 2000, §§ 68–72; Akdeniz and others v Turkey Judgment, 31 May 2001, §§ 90–93; Bazorkina v Russia Judgment, 6 July 2006, § 125, Baysayeva v Russia Judgment, 5 April 2007, §§ 126–130.
Usmanov I. (2016). Genesis of the right to life as the peremptory norm of international law. Naukoviy visnik UzhNU. Seriya «Pravo». № 39. Retrieved from http://www.visnyk-juris.uzhnu.uz.ua/file/No.39/part_2/35.pdf
Operational Law Handbook (2015). International and Operational Law Department The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School Charlottesville. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/operational-law-handbook_2015.pdf
GOST Style Citations
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2018 Iurii Usmanov
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.