Features of legal mechanism environmental responsibility of citizens in Ukraine

О. О. Шинкарьов

Abstract


Problem setting. In this article it is examined the main conceptual approaches to understanding the legal arrangement for implementing citizens' environmental obligations. It is noted that despite the diversity of approaches to understanding the arrangement for implementing citizens' environmental responsibilities, most scientists include the concepts of: a) a legal implementation arrangement, b) the process of practical implementation, c) the conditions and factors that influence it.  It is defined that the legal arrangement for implementing environmental obligations is guaranteed by prohibitions and legal regulations. In this case the regulatory legal act has two main functions:    1) prescribes the need to implement the legal obligation, determines it; 2) prescribes a result of the legal obligation implementation.

Recent research and publications analysis. Particular attention is paid to the work of scientists in environmental law, including VI Andryeytseva, G. Anisimova, GI Baluk, AP Hetman M. Krasnov, II Karakash, V. Kostytsky, VV Nosik, M. Shulga, S. Shemshuchenko and others. However, most of them concerning coverage of only certain aspects, is a comprehensive analysis of the legal implementation mechanism is still lacking.

It's analyzed the characteristics of the legal enforcement for implementing environmental responsibilities by citizens. It is determined that the legal arrangement for the implementation of environmental responsibilities is a part of a general arrangement of the law implementation. Ecological and legal arrangement for the implementation of environmental obligations is defined as a system of legal norms and legal relations by which the State provides the accomplishment of ecological  and legal regulations. Implementation of the constitutional obligations by the citizens is a process that is inherent in environmental responsibilities, in which there are several stages: 1) the ability to execute the obligations which are assigned by the Constitution and the current environmental legislation; 2) the ability to voluntarily adhere to legal prohibitions; 3) in good faith execute obligations in living activities.

Paper objective. The main forms of implementing the environmental responsibilities by  citizens are analyzed; the factors influencing them are defined. It was studied general theoretical understanding of the stages, as well as forms of the implementation of rules of law. Traditionally among the last there are: compliance and execution. A special form of implementation is application. Whereas the compliance - is the first and foremost (universal) form by which all subjects of public relations execute their obligations (both active and passive). The implementation of environmental responsibilities of citizens in the form of the compliance is a good behavior, which is characterized by passive confinement of persons (or inaction) on the infringement of the rules and bars which are set by regulations of the environmental       legislation.  The execution is expressed in commission of  actions provided  for by law by the subject. This is implementation of binding rules, however, the responsibilities are contained not only in the regulatory legal acts, but also in the contracts and individual documents. The application as a special form of the law implementation differs from the compliance and the execution that it is carried out by non-citizens, but only by those public authorities that are entitled to do so by law. The application of the law - it is an action of qualified government authorities or local authorities, which by law is delegated the right to apply ecological and legal regulations in order to implement the relevant environmental requirements, rules and prohibitions and they are provided if necessary (in case of violation) mechanism of state coercion.

Paper main body. It is noted that the legal arrangement for implementing environmental responsibilities is to be in: a) the ability to perform environmental responsibility, clearly defined in the legislation; b) establishing eco-legal status for the citizens as they are bearers of the environmental obligations and establishing  the specific  of juridical personality; c) attaching their actual composition of ecological relationship with clear fixation conditions onset environmental responsibilities of citizens; d) filling gaps in environmental legislation governing these obligations; e) the implementation of the interpretation of the law establishing environmental responsibilities; e) creating the arrangement of application of general and special guarantees for implementation of the environmental responsibilities.

Conclusions. Thus, in the present circumstances it is necessary to overcome imperfect and insufficient arrangement for regulation of environmental responsibilities. It is necessary to raise the level of legal culture and consciousness, to eliminate differences between environmental rights and obligations, to deduce clear boundaries for implementing environmental responsibilities, which will contribute to solve the abuse of the environmental rights as well as responsibilities.


Keywords


environmental obligations; environmentally and legal status of citizens; environmental legal; environmental legislation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2414-990x.129.52047

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