Energy Security of the European Union in the Context of Russian Aggression against Ukraine
Keywords:energy sovereignty, energy security, national interests, energy market, energy weapons, war, EU, Ukraine, Russia
Over the past decades, Russia has used the supply, ownership and control of energy resources as an instrument of its foreign policy to strengthen its political influence not only in the post-Soviet space, but also in the EU member states. During the unprovoked Russian aggression against Ukraine, Moscow used energy policy as an energy weapon (demanding to pay for gas in rubles; stopping gas supplies to certain EU member states, including Poland, Bulgaria, and Finland; reducing the volume of supplies through the Nord Stream pipeline; ignoring the capacities of the Ukrainian GTS; provoking an increase in gas prices), which resulted in an acute energy crisis in the European Union. This prompted the EU and national governments of its member states to make significant adjustments to their energy policies in order to overcome the crisis and prevent gas blackmail by European states as a manipulation to circumvent anti-Russian sanctions and political pressure to withdraw support for Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to study the problems of ensuring the energy security of the European Union and its member states in the context of the energy crisis caused by Russia's aggression against Ukraine. The article is aimed at studying the impact of Russian aggression on the EU's energy security, assessing the state of the Energy Union in 2022, and analyzing short-term and long-term strategies in the development of relevant supranational and national energy policies, mainly from a European perspective. Modern European national and supranational energy and climate strategies envisage postponing the phase-out of coal, oil, gas and nuclear power, while accelerating the deployment of renewable energy, improving energy efficiency and a mandatory commitment to increase energy storage. The European Union and its member states are overcoming the consequences of the energy crisis by developing and implementing national strategies, the REPowerEU plan, as well as a number of other measures to reduce energy prices and ensure security of supply. The REPowerEU plan is fully in line with the European Green Deal and includes measures to save energy, diversify and ensure security of supply, accelerate the deployment of renewable energy sources and a reasonable mix of investment and reform. The modernization of the EU's energy policy is aligned with the EU's long-term climate goals. The EU also supports new partnerships with neighboring countries, including Ukraine, to accelerate the global transition to green and fair energy.
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