European Security Architecture at the end of the XVIII – the first half of the XIX century

Authors

  • Анатолій Павлович Гетьман Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава Мудрого, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1987-2760
  • Іван Васильович Яковюк Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава мудрого, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8070-1645

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21564/2414-990x.150.209571

Keywords:

security architecture, Balance of power, Napoleon, European federation, Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), Vienna system of international relations

Abstract

Taking into account the new dangerous challenges to the modern international legal order and security system, politicians and scholars are faced with the question of the timeliness and validity of the revision of established conceptual approaches to the construction of international and European security architecture. Since the beginning of the XXI century there are more and more calls to significantly update the current international order, its institutions, norms and rules, which emerged after 1945 (especially the UN Security Council). In this regard, the study of the evolution of previous systems of international relations and security systems based on them (in particular the Vienna system) is relevant and of a practical significance. Regarding the «European Concert» as a core of the Viennese architecture of European security (1815–1914) there is a general ambiguous attitude in historiography, which prevents it from being properly assessed, as well as to trace the evolution of the Vienna system, its relationship with subsequent international systems, to assess the possibility of using its elements to design future international systems. It determines the attention caused by the formation, development and decline of the Vienna system. One of the concepts that require to be reconsidered in this context is the «balance of power», the theoretical foundations of which were mainly formed during the Vienna system. Over time, the content of the concept of «balance of power» changed markedly and was supplemented with new elements, which caused the conceptual ambiguity of the term. As a result of the development of international relations, changes in approaches to global and regional security, there is a need for a critical analysis of the «balance of power», its new conceptual models that explain the behavior of world politics’ subjects.

Author Biographies

Анатолій Павлович Гетьман, Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава Мудрого

проректор з наукової роботи

Іван Васильович Яковюк, Національний юридичний університет імені Ярослава мудрого

завідувач кафедри права Європейського Союзу

References

Аcte additionnel aux Constitutions de l'Empire du 22 avril 1815. URL: https://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/les-constitutions-dans-l-histoire/acte-additionnel-aux-constitutions-de-l-empire-du-22-avril-1815.

Anoshyna, N.-T.Yu. (2011). Holovnyi akt Videnskoho konhresu 1815 roku yak osnova mizhnarodnoho pravoporiadku XIX – pochatku XX stolittia. Odesa: Feniks [in Ukrainian].

Antoine-Vincent Arnault. Vie politique et militaire de Napoléon, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 128 et vol. 2.

Belissa, M. (1999). Fraternité universelle et intérêt national, 1713–1795, Les cosmopolitigues du droit des gens. Annales historiques de la Révolution française, 316, 389–393. Paris. URL: https://www.persee.fr/doc/ahrf_0003-4436_1999_num_316_1_2252_t1_0389_0000_2.

Bogaturov, A.D. (1997). Velikiye derzhavy na Tikhom okeane. Istoriya i teoriya mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy v Vostochnoy Azii posle vtoroy mirovoy voyny (1945-1995. Moscow: Konvert – MONF. URL: http://www.obraforum.ru/lib/book5/index.htm. [in Russian].

Bolingbrok, G.S.-Dzh. (1978). Pisma ob izuchenii i polze istorii. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].

Breunig, Ch. (1977). The Age of Revolution and Reaction 1789–1850. New York-London.

Cambaceres, Mémoires inédits, Perrin, 1999, 2 vol., II, 163; L'Europe napoléonienne. URL: https://ehne.fr/article/epistemologie-du-politique/construction-nationale-et-enjeux-europeens/leurope-napoleonienne.

Carsten, H. (1970). The Concert of Europe: A Study in German and British International Theory, 1815–1914. London: Longmans.

Cases E. de Las. Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène. (1951). Première édition intégrale et critique établie par Marcel Dunan, Paris, Flammarion, vol. I.

Cases E. de Las. Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène. (1951). Première édition intégrale et critique établie par Marcel Dunan, Paris, Flammarion, vol. II.

Chabod, F. (2001). Storia dell’idea d’Europa. Roma-Bari, Laterza.

Décret qui declare les iles britanniques en état de blocus. 21 november 1806. (1826). Collection complete des lois, décrets, ordonnances, réglemens, et avis du ConseilD’État, publiée sur les editions officielles du Louvre; de l’imprimerie nationale, par Baudouin; et du bulletin de lois. Vol. 16, 66–68. A Paris.

Driault, É. (1911). Napoléon et l’Europe. La politique extérieure de Napoléon Ier d’après les travaux récents, Annales révolutionnaires, juillet-septembre.

Dunan, M. (1961). Napoléon et l’Allemagne. Napoléon et l’Europe.

Duroselle, J.-B. (1992). Tout empire périra. Théorie des relations internationales. Paris: Armand Coli.

Elrod, R.B. (1976). The Concert of Europe: A Fresh Look at an International System. World Politics. Vol. 28, Issue 2, 159–174. doi: 10.2307/2009888.

Fadeyeva, T.M. K 200-letiyu Venskogo kongressa 1814-1815 gg.: razmyshleniya o ego nasledii (na stranitsakh zhurnala «Journal of Modern European History»). (Svodnyy referat). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/2016-03-021-024-k-200-letiyu-venskogo-kongressa-1814-1815-gg-razmyshleniya-o-ego-nasledii-na-stranitsah-zhurnala-journal-of-modern-european. [in Russian].

Farkhutdinov, I.Z. (2019). Postutrekhtskaya Evropa – neskonchayemyye voyny v XVIII v. Opyt doktrinalnogo issledovaniya problem formirovaniya sovremennoy modeli mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy v kontekste razvitiya mezhdunarodnogo prava (prodolzheniye). Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 12(139), 22–33 [in Russian].

Farkhutdinov, I.Z. (2020). Voyna i mir v kontekste mezhdunarodnogo prava. Opyt doktrinalnogo issledovaniya problem formirovaniya sovremennoy modeli mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy v kontekste razvitiya mezhdunarodnogo prava. Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2(141), 25–33 [in Russian].

Final Act of the Congress of Vienna/General Treaty (1815). URL: http://www.hlrn.org/img/documents/final_congress_viennageneral_treaty1815.pdf.

Fleury de Chaboulon. Les Cent Jours. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la vie privée, du retour et du règne de Napoléon en 1815. Londres, 1820.

Fordham, B. (2004). A Very Sharp Sward: The Influence of Military Capabilities on American Decisions to Use Force. Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 48, 5, 632–654.

Georges Bordonove, Napoléon, Paris, Pygmalion, 1998 (1re édition en 1978).

Germaine de Stael. (1983). Considérations sur la Révolution française. Introduction, bibliographie et notes par J. Godechot, Paris, Tallandier.

Goldsmith, B. (2003). Bearing the Defense Burden, 1886–1989: Why Spend More? Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 47, 5, 551–570.

Gulick, E.V. (). Europe's Classical Balance of Power: A Case History of the Theory and Practice of One of the Great Concepts of European Statecraft. New York: WW Norton & Co.

Holbraad, C. (1970). The Concert of Europe: a study in German and British international Theory, 1815–1914. Harlow: Longmans.

Holsti Kalevi Jaakko. (1991). Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order, 1648–1989. Cambridge University Press.

Horlo, N.V. (2019). Kontseptualni zasady i praktyka iredentyzmu: vnutrishnopolitychnyi i mizhnarodno-politychnyi konteksty. Zaporizhzhia: ZNU [in Ukrainian].

Jourdan, A. Napoléon et la paix universelle. Utopie et réalité. URL: https://books.openedition.org/pur/16119.

K 200-letiyu Venskogo kongressa 1814–1815 gg.: razmyshleniya o ego nasledii (na stranitsakh zhurnala «Journal of Modern European History»). (Svodnyy referat). URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/2016-03-021-024-k-200-letiyu-venskogo-kongressa-1814-1815-gg-razmyshleniya-o-ego-nasledii-na-stranitsah-zhurnala-journal-of-modern-european/ [in Russian].

Kenneth, N.W. (1979). Theory of International Politics. N.Y.: Random House. 251 р.

Khronika podii 1802–1804 rokiv. URL: https://www.jnsm.com.ua/cgi-bin/m/td2.pl?Year=1803 [in Ukrainian].

King, D. (2010). Bitva diplomatov. ili Vena. 1814 / Devid King; per. s angl. I. V. Lobanova. Moscow: AST: Astrel [in Russian].

Kissinger, H.A (1957). World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Klyuchnikov, Yu.V., Sabanin, A.V. (1925). Mezhdunarodnaya politika noveyshego vremeni v dogovorakh. notakh i deklaratsiyakh. ch. 1. Ot Frantsuzskoy revolyutsii do imperialisticheskoy voyny. Moscow: Litizdat NKID [in Russian].

Kudryavtseva, E.P. (2014). Venskaya sistema mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy i eye krusheniye (1815–1854 gody). Novaya i noveyshaya istoriya, 4, 88–106 [in Russian].

Las Cases. Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène, Flammarion, 1951, II, 233.

Lefebvre, G. (1965). Napoléon, Paris, PUF (Peuples et civilisations), 5e éd. revue et augmentée.

Lents, T. Evropeyskiy proyekt Napoleona. URL: http://annuaire-fr.igh.ru/system/articles/pdfs/000/000/110/original/084d04bc06e5c0465de4ed11683f087e21d7f70a.pdf?1437044450 [in Russian].

Le radici storiche e culturali dell’Europa. L’attualità di un’idea antica / Coordinatore del Liliana Mosca. 2012–2013, 34. URL: http://www.fedoa.unina.it/9991/1/Tarantino_Annamaria_26.pdf.

Le Roman de Napoléon: L’Europe sous Napoléon (9/15). URL: https://leblogueur63.wordpress.com/2017/11/14/le-roman-de-napoleon-leurope-sous-napoleon-9-15/.

Majoros, I. (2016). Questions of Organisation, Portraits and Everyday Life in Vienna, 1814-1815. La Garde-Chambonas about the Congress of Vienna. Central European Papers. Vol. IV, 1, 8–19.

Manfred, A. Napoléon Bonaparte, Moscou, Les Éditions du Progrès, 1980 (1re édition en URSS en 1971).

Marzagalli, S. (1999). Les boulevards de la fraude. Le négoce maritime et le blocus continental, 1806-1813. Bordeaux, Hambourg, Livourne, Villeneuve d’Ascq, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

Militar-historisches Kriegslexikon (1618–1905). (1908). Herausgegeben von G. Bodart, Wien und Leipzig.

Miller, L. (1994). Global Order. Values and Power in International Politics. Boulder: Westview.

Mirzekhanov, V.S. (2019). 1815 god v istorii: evropeyskaya sistema i evropeyskaya identichnost mezhdu krizisami i ravnovesiyem v epokhu moderna. Elektronnyy nauchno-obrazovatelnyy zhurnal «Istoriya». Vol. 10, issue 11 (85). Transformatsii mezhdunarodno-politicheskikh sistem: ot Venskogo kongressa do XXI veka. doi: 10.18254/S207987840008097-5 [in Russian].

Nadler, V.K. (1892). Imperator Aleksandr I i ideya Svyashchennogo soyuza: v 5 t. Riga: Izdaniye knigoprodavtsa N. Kimmelya; Kharkov: Tipografiya Gubernskogo Pravleniya. Vol. V [in Russian].

Parsamov, V.S. (2017). Svyashchennyy soyuz i ego interpretatory. Rossiya i mir v ХІХ veke, 4 (97), 45–60 [in Russian].

Picheta, V.I. (1912). Aleksandr i Evropa. Otechestvennaya voyna i russkoye obshchestvo. 1812–1912. Yubileynoye izdaniye. (Vols. 1–7); Vol. VII. Moscow: Tipografiya T-va I. D. Sytina [in Russian].

Phillips, W.A. (1920). The Confederation of Europe: A Study of the European Alliance, 1813–1823, as an Experiment in the International Organization of Peace. 2nd edn. London, New York: Longmans Green and Co, 150–152.

Proyekt Akta o Svyashchennom soyuze. sostavlennyy Aleksandrom I s popravkami Frantsa I. (1960). Vneshnyaya politika Rossii v XIX — nachale XX v. Vol. 8. Moscow [in Russian].

Rakhshmir, P.Yu. (2005). Knyaz Metternikh: chelovek i politik. Perm: Kommersant [in Russian].

Rao, A.-M. (1994). Républiques et monarchies à l’époque révolutionnaire: une diplomatie nouvelle? La République et l’Europe, n° spécial des Annales historiques de la Révolution française, 2, 267–278.

Regionalnaya spetsifika struktur stabilnosti. URL: http://www.obraforum.ru/lib/book5/2_3.htm [in Russian].

Rendall, M. (2006). Defensive realism and the Concert of Europe. Review of International Studies, 32, 524. doi:10.1017/S0260210506007145.

Rey, M.-P. (2013). Aleksandr I. Moscow: ROSSPEN [in Russian].

Rey, M.-P. (2017). Venskiy kongress kak instrument vyrabotki novykh diplomaticheskikh norm i obychayev. Per. s fr. O.V. Okunevoy. Rossiya i sovremennyy mir, 4 (97), 31–44. Doі: 10.31249/rsm/2017.04.03 [in Russian].

Schroeder, P.W. (1972). Austria, Great Britain, and the Crimean War: The destruction of the European concert. Cornell University Press.

Schroeder, P.W. (2000). International politics, peace, and war, 1815–1914. The Nineteenth Century Europe 1789–1914, Blanning T. C. W. (ed.), Oxford.

Sekretnyy doklad. (1897). predstavlennyy Napoleonu ministerstvom inostrannykh del. 4 (16-go) marta 1810 goda. Russkaya starina. Vol. 89, 3, 424–425 [in Russian].

Shilder, N.K. (1905). Imperator Aleksandr I. Ego zhizn i tsarstvovaniye. (Vols. 1–4); Vol. IV. SPb.: Tip. A.S. Suvorina [in Russian].

Stael, G. de, Godechot J. (1983). Considérations sur la Révolution française ; introduction, bibliographie, chronologie et notes par J. Godechot. Paris: Tallandier.

Tarle, E.V. (1958). Sochineniya. (Vols. 1–12); Vol. 3. Kontinentalnaya blokada. Issledovaniya po istorii promyshlennosti i vneshney torgovli Frantsii v epokhu Napoleona I. Moscow: Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR [in Russian].

Teylor, A.Dzh. (1958). P. Borba za gospodstvo v Evrope 1848-1918. Moscow: Inostrannaya literatura [in Russian].

The Concert of Europe and Great-Power Governance Today. What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About International Order in the 21st Century? 34 p. URL: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE200/PE226/RAND_PE226.pdf.

Tomsinov, V.A. (2012). Rokovaya voyna Napoleona Bonaparta. Partitura Pervoy Otechestvennoy. Voyna 1812 goda / Sostavitel E. N. Rudaya. Moscow: Veche, 15–82 [in Russian].

Touchard-Lafosse, G., Saint-Amant, J. (1825). Précis de l’histoire de Napoléon, du Consulat et de l’Empire avec les réflexions de Napoléon lui-même sur les événements et les personnages les plus importants de son époque suivi d’un examen politique et littéraire des ouvrages qui se rattachent le plus immédiatement à l’histoire de Napoléon, Paris, A. Thoisnier-Desplaces.

Traité d'alliance offensive et defensive conclu à Tilsit le 25 Juin (7 Juillet) 1807. Sbornik imperatorskogo Russkogo istoricheskogo obshchestva. Vol 89, 58–59 [in Russian].

Tsivatyi, V.H. (2015). Videnskyi konhres (1814–1815 rr.): instytutsionalnyi vymir yevropeiskoho derzhavotvorennia, zovnishnoi polityky i dyplomatii (mizhnarodno-pravovyi aspekt). Naukovyi visnyk Dyplomatychnoi akademii Ukrainy, issue 22(1), 114–123 [in Ukrainian].

Tulard, J. (1977). Napoléon, ou le mythe du sauveur, Paris, Fayard.

Urlanis, B.Ts. (1998). Istoriya voyennykh poter. Voyny i narodonaseleniye Evropy. Lyudskiye poteri vooruzhennykh sil Evropeyskikh stran v voynakh XVII-XX vv. (istoriko-statisticheskoye issledovaniye). SPb.: Poligon; Moscow: AST [in Russian].

Webster, C.K. (1919). The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815. London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press.

Wilborn, T.L. Stability, Security Structures and the US Policy for East Asia and the Pacific. [б/м]: Strategic Studies Institute. Army War College. March 23, 1993.

What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About International Order in the 21st Century? 34 p. URL: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE200/PE226/RAND_PE226.pdf.

Wohlforth, W., Little, R., Kaufman, S.J., Kang, D., Jones, C.A., Tin-Bor, Hui V., Eckstein, A., Deudney, D., Brenner, W.J. (2007). Testing Balance-of-Power Theory in World History. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 13, 2, 155–185.

Woolf, S. (1990). Napoléon et la conquête de l’Europe. Paris, Flammarion.

Xavier, A.M. Le Royaume de Westphalie Napoleonien, tentative D’instauration D’un "Etat-Modele". URL: https://www.napoleon.org/histoire-des-2-empires/articles/le-royaume-de-westphalie-napoleonien-tentative-dinstauration-dun-etat-modele/.

Yamada, N. (2004). George Canning and the Concert of Europe, September 1822-July 1824. Thesis submitted for the Degree of PhD, University of London. URL: http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/2562/1/U615511.pdf.

Zak, L.A. (1966). Monarkhi protiv narodov. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnyye otnosheniya. 376 s. [in Russian].

Zemtsov, V.N. (2018). Evropa: imperskiy proyekt Napoleona. Otechestvennaya voyna 1812 goda: Istochniki. Pamyatniki. Problemy. Materialy XXI Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. Borodino. 4–6 sentyabrya 2017 g. / Sost. I.V. Korneyev. Moscow, 234–247 [in Russian].

Published

2020-10-06

How to Cite

Гетьман, А. П., & Яковюк, І. В. (2020). European Security Architecture at the end of the XVIII – the first half of the XIX century. Problems of Legality, (150), 8–32. https://doi.org/10.21564/2414-990x.150.209571

Issue

Section

LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF UKRAINE’S NATIONAL SECURITY

Most read articles by the same author(s)