DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2414-990x.149.201926

Legal regulation of Hungarian activities regarding its kin-minority in Zakarpattia

Віта Антонівна Чепек

Abstract


The article analyzes the role and competences of a kin-state in the protection of its national minority living abroad. The issue had been analyzed with the example of Hungarian unilateral legal acts, which present legal consequences and the legitimacy of the actions of a kin-state. The article focuses on the basic international legal mechanisms for the protection of the rights of national minorities and the recommendations given by international advisory bodies in this area. 

According to international law, the state, in which the minority lives, has the primary duty to protect minority rights. Only few types of actions can be taken by a kin-state in favour of its kin-minority: actions in the context of international bodies and mechanisms, actions in co-operation with the home state and domestic legislation concerning relations with its kin minority. The last one is not regulated by international law and is broadly discussed in its doctrine. 

The article analyzes Hungarian domestic legislation providing a wide range of preferential treatment to the members of the kin minorities in Zakarpattia, namely Act LXII OF 2001 on Hungarians Living in Neighbouring Countries and Аmendmentof Act LV of 1993 on Hungarian citizenship. Soft law instruments confirm that this kind of legislation of kin-states has to be assessed in accordance with relevant principles of the international law, such as territorial sovereignty of the state, pactasunt servanda, friendly relations among state and the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the prohibition of discrimination.


Keywords


„kin-minority”, “kin-state”, the European Commission for Democracy through Law, territorial sovereignty of the state

References


Deklaratsija praw nacionalnostej Ukrainy vid 1.11.1991. (1991). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 53, art. 799.

Dohovir pro osnovy dobrosusidstva ta spivrobitnytstva mizh Ukrainoyu y Uhors’koju Respublikoju: Dohovir ratyfikovano Postanovoju VR N 2527-XII (2527-12) vid 01.07.92).

Khalavka, T. (2013). Vyznachennja definicii’ „nacionalna menshyna” jak ob’jekta derzhavnoi’ etnonacionalnoi’ polityky. Teorija ta praktyka derzhavnoho upravlinnja, Issue 4(43), 104 [in Ukrainian].

Halász, I. (2006). Models of Kin Minority Protection in Central and Eastern Europe. O. Ieda (Ed.) Beyond Sovereignty: From Status Law to Transnational Citizenship? Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 9.

Konstytucija Ukrainy. (1996). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 30, art. 141.

The Fundamental Law of Hungary from 25 April 2011. URL: https://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/hu00000_.html.

Opinion on the new Constitution of Hungary adopted by the Venice Commission at its 87th Plenary Session (Venice, 17–18 June 2011).

Third Opinion on Ukraine adopted on 22 March 2012 by Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. URL: https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=090000168008c6c0.

Fourth Report submitted by Ukraine pursuant to Article 25, paragraph 2 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, ACFC/SR/IV(2016)003. URL: https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680657b74.

Stan dotrymannja ta zahyst prav nacional’nyh menshyn v Ukraini: Special’na dopovid’ Upovnovazhenoho Verhovnoi’ Rady Ukrainy z prav ljudyny, 2006. URL: http://www1.ombudsman.gov.ua/ru/images/stories/07022011/S_Dopovid_2_1.pdf [in Ukrainian].

Act LXII OF 2001 on Hungarians Living in Neighbouring Countries, adopted by the Hungarian Parliament on 19 June 2001. URL: https://www.refworld.org/docid/3f460e764.html.

Report on the Preferential Treatment of National Minorities by Their Kin-State adopted by the Venice Commission 19-20 October 2001. URL: https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL-INF(2001)019-e.

Аmendment of Act LV of 1993 on Hungarian citizenship approved by the Hungarian National Assembly on 26 May 2010. URL: https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/3ae6b4e630.pdf.

Pro hromadjanstvo: Zakon Ukrainy vid 18.01.2001 r. № 2235-III. (2001). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 13, art. 65. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2235-14 (accessed: 2.04.2020).

Ukraine – Opinion on the Law on Supporting the Functioning of the Ukrainian Language as the State Language, adopted by the Venice Commission at its 121st Plenary Session (Venice, 6–7 December 2019), CDL-AD(2019)032. URL: https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL-AD(2019)032-e.


GOST Style Citations


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