DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2414-990x.143.148488

Legal regulation of the Baltic States national security policy within the NATO’S Strategic concepts evolution framework

Іван Васильович Яковюк, Станіславович Сергій Шестопал

Abstract


The formation and development of the policy of national security of the Baltic States from the moment of independence has been considered. The impossibility of using the Soviet model of security in the Baltic States was discovered primarily because of the radically different size of states, the nature of threats and resource potential, as well as its non-compliance with the security models in force in the EU and NATO.

Accession of the Baltic States to the EU and NATO changed the situation with ensuring national security in the Baltic States. Membership in NATO provided the countries of the region with access to collective defense, which they became part of. At the same time, the Baltic countries were forced to consider the problem of security in the context of providing international security, which at the beginning of the XXI century. is characterized by the expansion of asymmetric threats. This led to a radical change in the defensive concepts and concepts of national security in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in accordance with the principles of the UN, NATO and the EU.   It is established that in the EU there is a difference in the vision of the nature and origin of security threats between Western European, Eastern European and Mediterranean countries. And even in the Baltic countries, the same threats can be in one country in the list of external threats, while in others - internal ones. The orientation of the Baltic States in the field of security in NATO, and not in the EU, is due in particular to the fact that the security problem in the Eastern Partnership region has not been adequately reflected in EU policy as a tool for its solution.

         It has been established that a key political document reflecting the common vision of NATO's objectives is strategic concepts that directly affect the content and direction of national security policies of NATO member states. Each of the following Strategies aims to ensure a qualitative modernization of the Alliance, turning it into a multifunctional mechanism for responding to crises. The paper analyzes the evolution of the strategic concepts of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from the end of the 1990s to the present time, as well as their influence on the development of the policy of national security and defense of the Baltic States. The emphasis is placed on the absence of the problem of maintaining state sovereignty in the conditions of the state's membership in NATO. 

         In order to maintain stability in the Baltic Sea region, the Baltic States seek to strengthen military-political cooperation in all critical sectors with the countries of the Northern region of Europe and Poland. Relations with Russia are mainly based on international treaties signed with Russia by the EU and NATO. Bilateral cooperation with the United States, as well as the activities of the Baltic States in NATO and the EU, remain of strategic importance to ensure their safety.   


Keywords


security; defense; strategic concepts; states overeignty; Baltic countries; NATO

References


Viiskovo-tekhnichna polityka krain – chleniv NATO: orhanizatsiini aspekty spivrobitnytstva Ukrainy z Aliansom. V. P. Horbulin (Ed.). (2005). Kyiv: Yevroatlantykinform [in Ukrainian].

Voienna doktryna Ukrainy, zatverdzhena Ukazom Prezydenta Ukrainy vid 24 veresnia 2015 r. № 555/2015. URL: https://www.president.gov.ua/ documents/5552015-19443 [in Ukrainian].

Yevropeiska ta yevroatlantychna intehratsiia Ukrainy: stan i perspektyvy. F. H. Vashchuk, I. V. Artomov (Eds.). (2008). Uzhhorod: Lira [in Ukrainian].

Zadorozhnyi, O.V. (2014). Mizhnarodne pravo v mizhderzhavnykh vidnosynakh Ukrainy i Rosiiskoi Federatsii 1991–2014. Kyiv: K.I.S. [in Ukrainian].

Ziniak L.V. (2015). Mizhnarodno-pravovi zasady viiskovoho spivrobitnytstva Ukrainy. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].

Lipkevych S.Ya. (2007). Istorychnyi dosvid vkhodzhennia kolyshnikh chleniv Orhanizatsii Varshavskoho Dohovoru ta derzhav Baltii do NATO (v konteksti perspektyv Ukrainy). Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Lviv [in Ukrainian].

Panasiuk V.V. (2010). Viiskovo-politychni aspekty intehratsii Ukrainy z NATO. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Lviv [in Ukrainian].

Pro vnesennia zmin do Konstytutsii Ukrainy (shchodo stratehichnoho kursu derzhavy na nabuttia povnopravnoho chlenstva Ukrainy v Yevropeiskomu Soiuzi ta v Orhanizatsii Pivnichnoatlantychnoho dohovoru): proekt Zakonu Ukrainy № 9037 vid 03.09.2018 r. URL: http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/ webproc4_1?pf3511=64531 [in Ukrainian].

Active Engagement, Modern Defence: Strategic Concept For the Defence and Security of The Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Adopted by Heads of State and Government in Lisbon (2010). URL: https://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept-2010-eng.pdf.

Anthony Cragg. (1999). A new Strategic Concept for a new era. URL: https://www.nato.int/docu/review/1999/9902-04.htm.

Bo Ljung, Tomas Malmlöf, Karlis Neretnieks et al. [ed.] (2012). The Security and Defensibility of the Baltic States A Comprehensive Analysis of a Security Complex in the Making. URL: http://www.aff.a.se/balticum.pdf.

Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (2004). Ed. by Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, Robert quoted in Kaldor, Mary. (2003). Global Civil Society. An answer to War, Oxford.

Council conclusions on the Review of the European Neighbourhood Policy, 20/04/2015. URL: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/04/ 20-council-conclusions-review-european-neighbourhood-policy.

Defence and Security for the small : Perspectives from the Baltic States. (2013). By Raimonds Rublovskis, Dr. Margarita Šešelgyte & Riina Kaljurand. Centre for Small State Studies Institute of International Affairs.

Drazen Smiljanic. (2016). Sustainability and national security. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299489585/download.

EU-US Summit, Madrid, 3 December 1995: «the New Transatlantic Agenda and the Joint EU-US Action Plan». URL: http://www.statewatch.org/news/ 2008/aug/eu-usa-nta-1995.pdf.

Frans-Paul van der Putten, Jan Rood, Minke Meijnders. (2016). Great Powers and Global Stability. Clingendael Monitor. URL: https://www.clingendael.org/ sites/default/files/pdfs/clingendael_monitor2016-great_powers_and_global_stability-eng_0.pdf.

G. John Ikenberry (2011). The Future of the Liberal World Order. Foreign Affairs, May/June, 56–68.

Grazina Miniotaite. (1999). The Security Policy of Lithuania and the «Integration Dilemma». Vilnius.

Lithuanian Energy Security. Annual Review 2013–2014. (2015). Kaunas: Vytautas Magnus University; Vilnius: Versus aureus, 2015.

Lucas, E. (2011). Loose Ends and Their Virtues. Or, a conceptual non-framework for Nordic-Baltic security cooperation. Nordic-Baltic Security in the 21st Century: The Regional Agenda and the Global Role (Atlantic Council).

Martynas Zapolskis. (2012). 1999 and 2010 NATO Strategic Concepts: A Comparative Analysis. Lithuanian Annual Strategic Review 2011–2012, Vilnius: Lithuanian Military Academy,. Vol.10: Is. 1. Jan 2013. 35–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10243-012-0012-5.

National Defence Strategy Estonia. URL: http://www.kaitseministeerium.ee/sites/default/files/elfinder/article_files/national_defence_strategy.pdf.

National Security Concept of Estonia (2010). URL: https://www.eda. europa.eu/docs/default-source/documents/estonia---national-security-concept-of-estonia-2010.pdf .

National Security Strategy of the Republic of Lithuania, adopted on May 28, 2002. URL: http://www.kam.lt/EasyAdmin/sys/files/NSS.doc.

Raimonds Rublovskis, Dr. Margarita Šešelgyte & Riina Kaljurand. Defence and Security for the Small: Perspectives from the Baltic States. URL: https://ams.hi.is/wp-content/uploads/old/defence_and_security_-_layout3.pdf.

Report on state defence policy and armed forces development : Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Latvia, Rīga. URL: stratobs.eu/docs/data/documents/files/136.pdf.

Robert Gilpin (1987). The political economy of international relations. Princeton N.J.: Princeton U. Pr.

S. Neil MacFarlane. (2012). Georgia: National Security Concept versus National Security. Tbilisi and University of Oxford.

The Military Strategy of the Republic of Lithuani (2004). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/15267/MilStrategyLT.pdf.

The Military Strategy of the Republic of Lithuania (2012). URL: kam.lt/download/32127/the_military_strategy_

The National Security Concepts of the Baltic States’ after their NATO and EU membership. URL: https://krigsvidenskab.dk/the-national-security-concepts-of-the-baltic-states-after-their-nato-and-eu-membership.

The National Security Concept of the Republic of Estonia (2004). URL: https://vm.ee/sites/default/files/content-editors/web-static/256/MH_NSC_604.pdf

The National Security Concept of the Republic of Latvia (2005). URL: http://www.mod.gov.lv/~/media/AM/Par_aizsardzibas_nozari/Plani,%20koncepcijas/2005_nd_en.ashx.

The National Security Strategy Lithuania (2012). URL: https://www.bbn.gov.pl/ftp/dok/07/LTU_National_Security_Strategy_2012.pdf

The Security and Defensibility of the Baltic States : A Comprehensive Analysis of a Security Complex in the Making (2012). Bo Ljung, Tomas Malmlöf, Karlis Neretnieks and Mike Winnerstig [ed.] Avdelningen för informations- och aerosystem, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).

The State Defence Concept (2012). URL: https://www.eda.europa.eu/ docs/default-source/documents/latvia-state-defense-concept-2012-pdf.pdf.

The Strategic Foresight Analysis 2017 Report. URL: http://www.act. nato.int/images/stories/media/doclibrary/171004_sfa_2017_report_hr.pdf.

Trine Flockhart. After the Strategic Concept Towards a NATO Version 3.0: Diis Reort 2011:06. URL: https://www.diis.dk/files/media/publications/ import/extra/rp2011-06-nato-after-strategic-concept_web.pdf.


GOST Style Citations




Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Copyright (c) 2018 Іван Васильович Яковюк, Станіславович Сергій Шестопал

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2224-9281